Nowadays, Cintra Street in Penang is a popular tourist attraction with its charming guesthouses and old-fashioned architecture. Known for its booming textile and gold trade in the 1960s and 1980s, this is arguably one of those places that defines Penang as a quintessentially Malaysian historic place.
However, under the spell and the well-kept stores hides a dark past, because Cintra Street was once known as Penang red light district. And within these walls lies the tragic story of the karayuki-san, or Japanese prostitutes, who carried on their trade in and around the region in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
But who were these women, and how did they end up so far from home in such harsh conditions? Well, to understand that we have to go back a long way, to the Edo period (1603 – 1867) in feudal Japan …
It all started on Kyushu Island with the two T’s: Taxes and Torture
When Matsukura Katsuie, the pro-Tokugawa daimyo (feudal lord) of Shimabara began torture Christians and tax his people pretty much to famine to raise funds for his luxury castle, the people of Kyushu revolted; triggering the Shimabara rebellion of 1637-38. Although Katsuie ultimately quelled the rebellion, he himself was later executed by the Tokugawa shogunate, well, he was really kind of a jerk.
The severe depopulation of the peninsula caused by the fighting meant that the replacement of Katsuie, KÅriki Tadafusa had to flood the region with immigrants to stimulate the economy, the Tokugawa choosing to blame Christians rather than over-taxation for the whole fiasco.
Fast forward to the Meiji period (1868-1912), and things did not improve – fishermen and peasants in the area were still taxed at 50% of their annual harvest, and had to pay extra tax on girls (leading to an increase in female infanticide). In addition, immigration had very limited work opportunities.
With the threat of famine on the horizon, many had no choice but to selling their daughters abroad as prostitutes, or ‘karayuki-san’, meaning “Miss Gone-To-China / Miss Gone Abroad”.
Karayuki-san was a major source of capital for Japanese companies in Penang
Karayuki-san’s fate back then was not that different from sex workers today.: they were often fooled by job offers for waitresses or loans of money, before being forced into the sex trade, some to places as far away as Zanzibar or Siberia. Some were even lured under the pretext of patriotism, convinced that they were the equivalent of female soldiers serving for the good of Japan. Despite their difficult situation, Karayuki-san sent money home to help their impoverished families.
In 1910 there was about 207 Japanese citizens in Penang in 1910; half of whom were in the sex trade, generally operating in geisha houses in the neighborhoods of Cintra Street, Kampung Malabar and Campbell Street. However, most of the income from the karayuki-san sex trade would go to finance legitimate Japanese companies in Penang like medicine, dentistry, hotels and photography.
Such was the impact of the Japanese economic boom in Penang when Cintra Street became known as Little Japan, or Jipun Sin Lor (“New Japanese Road”). In fact, even today, some Chinese Penangites still refer to Cintra Street as “Jipun Kay”, the Hokkien word “kay” actually being a play on words, as it can mean “road” or “chicken (prostitute ) â, Depending on the intonation.
Although competing with local Chinese prostitutes (‘Sin Kay’), Karayuki-san was preferred by foreigners and non-Chinese alike because they did not refuse foreigners like Chinese prostitutes did, underwent strict hygiene checks and were good at hospitality and the performing arts:
âThe pleasure houses were identified by red lanterns hanging on the door. These dens are remembered by the elderly as places to relax and enjoy a range of servicesâ¦ Well-dressed and well-behaved courtesans served opium, tea and alcohol, and provided musical entertainment and the company. – Khoo Salma Nasution, Penang Heritage Trust
But on the darker side of things it was not uncommon to find prostitutes from 10 or 11 years old sometimes sold by their mothers or grandmothers for as little as Â£ 10 and “rented” to customers for around $ 150 to $ 500 depending on the woman’s age, virginity, beauty and origin. These women were treated like commodities and would be transported from town to town for a living.
In the 1920s, the Japanese viewed karayuki-san as a source of shame
With the rise of Japanese nationalism, especially after their victory in the Russo-Japanese War of 1905, karayuki-san began to be seen as a disgrace by the Japanese. Together with the British administration, the Japanese government decided to abolish karayuki-san worldwide, repatriating many of them to Japan, unfortunately. exposing them to serious discrimination in their country of origin.
Some ended up marrying locals, or even went underground to continue the sex trade. During WWII, karayuki-san had all but disappeared from Penang, the few remaining people becoming mistresses of former patrons or cafe / restaurant waitresses in George Town, arguably enjoying a better fate than those who chose to return to Japan.
But many karayuki-san eventually died on the job, often from illness. There is a Japanese cemetery on Jalan P. Ramlee which serves as the final resting place for many Meiji-era karayuki-san, who constitute the majority of the dead interned there. However, not all karayuki-san were lucky enough to have a tombstone in their name; in the book Sandakan Brothel # 8, it is said that some of those who died in Sandakan, Sabah, are buried in unmarked hillside graves, fading completely from history and memory once their rudimentary headstones rot.
Perhaps it is a small consolation for the deceased karayuki-san that the Japanese people still honor their sacrifices today. In Kyushu, there is a monument dedicated to their memory, with hundreds of stone fence posts bearing their names, contributions and places of occupation, including Penang, Singapore, Ipoh, Rangoon and Siberia.